Bereknyei S, Foran SM, Johnson KD, Scott AJ, Miller TL, Braddock CH. Stopping discrimination before it starts: the impact of civil rights laws on healthcare disparities - a medical school curriculum. MedEdPORTAL; 2009. Available from MedEdPORTAL, ID=7740
Crandall S, Foley K, Marion G, Walker K, Kronner D, Vaden K, Spangler J. Training Guide for Standardized Patient Instructors to Teach Medical Students Culturally Competent Tobacco Cessation Counseling. MedEdPORTAL; 2008. Available from MedEdPORTAL, ID=762
Crandall SJ, Yunis C, Arcury TA. Elective course in culture and diversity. MedEdPORTAL; 2005. Available from MedEdPORTAL, ID = 192.
Lie DA, Lewis E, Ahearn S, Lenahan P, Boker J and Vega C. Interpreter Cases for Cultural Competency Instruction, a case series published in MedEdPORTAL; December 2005. Available from: MedEdPORTAL, ID = 9814.
Estrada CA. Cultural Competencies Online for Medical Practice (CCOMP): A Clinician's Guide to Reduce Cardiovascular Disparities. MedEdPORTAL; 2009. Available from MedEd PORTAL
Lie DA, Vega, CP. Health Disparities Cases developed for point-of-care use by clinicians and educators LINK, MedEdPORTAL, ID = 573.
Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics. August 2007, Volume 9, Number 8: 521-593. Language, Culture, and Belief in the Medical Encounter HTML Table of Contents Link | PDF download
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Baquet CR, Carter-Pokras O, Bengen-Seltzer B.
Healthcare disparities and models for change. American Journal of Managed Care 2004;10:SP5-SP11
Available at: www.ajmc.com
Bereknyei S, Nevins A, Schillinger E, Garcia RD, Stuart AE, Braddock CH. Beyond knowledge, toward linguistic competency: an experiential curriculum. Journal of General Internal Medicine. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2), S155-9.
Carter-Pokras O, Bereknyei S, Lie DA, Braddock CH for the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals. Surmounting the unique challenges in health disparities education: a multi-institution qualitative study. Journal of General Internal Medicine. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2), S108-14.
Carter-Pokras O, Acosta DA, Lie D, Bereknyei S, DeLisser H, Haidet P, Gill A, Hildebrandt C, Crandall S, Kondwani K, Glick S. for the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals. Curricular Products from the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals. MDNG: Focus on Multicultural Healthcare. 2009.
Carter-Pokras O, Zambrana RE, Poppell CF, Logie LA, Guerrero-Preston R. The Environmental health of Latino children. Journal of Pediatric Health Care 2007;21(5):307-314.
Carter-Pokras O, Baquet C. What is a "health disparity"? Public Health Reports 2002;117(5):426-34.
Available at: www.publichealthreports.org
Cohn FG, Shapiro J, Lie DA, Boker J, Stephens F, Leung LA. Interpreting values conflicts experienced by obstetrics-gynecology clerkship students using reflective writing. Academic Medicine. May 2009; 84(5), 587-596.
Dogra N, Reitmanova S, Carter-Pokras O. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in UK, US, and Canadian Medical Schools. Journal of General Internal Medicine. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2), S164-168.
Dogra N, Reitmanova S, Carter-Pokras O. Twelve tips for teaching diversity and embedding it in the curriculum. Medical Teacher. 2009; 31(11): 990-993.
Dogra N, Carter-Pokras O. Stakeholder views regarding cultural diversity teaching outcomes: a qualitative study. BMC Med Educ 2005 Nov 1;5:37
Available at: www.biomedcentral.com
Glick S, Fernandez L, Irby DM, Harleman E, Fernandez A. Teaching about health care disparities in the clinical setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2), S95-101.
Lie DA, Shapiro J, Cohn F, Najm W. Reflective practice enriches clerkship students' cross-cultural experiences. Journal of General Internal Medicine. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2), S119-125.
Lie DA. A framework for enhancing and assessing cultural competence training. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. September 2009; 25(9); 486-92.
Lie DA. International perspectives on cultural competency education. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. September 2009; 25(9); 469-70.
Lie DA, Bereknyei S, Braddock CH, Encinas J, Boker JR. Assessing medical students' skills in working with interpreters during patient encounters: a validation study of the Interpreter Scale. Academic Medicine. May 2009; 84(5), 643-50.
Lie DA, Bereknyei S, Kalet A, Braddock CH. Learning outcomes of a web module for teaching interpreter interaction skills to pre-clerkship students. Family Medicine. April 2009; 41(4); 234-5.
Lie DA, Boker J, Dow E, Murrata P, Encinas J, Gutierrez D, Morrison EH. Attributes of effective community preceptors for pre-clerkship medical students. Medical Teacher. March 2009; 31(3); 251-9.
Lie DA, Boker J, Crandall SJ, DeGannes CJ, Elliot D, Henderson P, Kodjo C, Seng L. Revising the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) for curriculum evaluation: findings derived from seven US schools and expert consensus. Medical Education Online. January 2008;13(11).
Lie DA, Shapiro J, Pardee S, Najm W. A focus group study of medical students' views of an integrated complementary alternative medicine (CAM) curriculum: students teaching teachers. Medical Education Online. January 2008; 13(3); 1-13.
Lie DA, Boker J, Bereknyei S, Ahearn S, Fesko C, Lenahan P. Validating measures of third year medical students' use of interpreters by standardized patients and faculty observers. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2007 Nov:22 (s)2. Available at: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Lie DA, Carter-Pokras O, Cleveland E. Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) Resource Guide. AAMC.
Available at: www.aamc.org
Lie DA, Boker J, Cleveland E. Using the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) to Measure Faculty and Medical Student Perceptions of Cultural Competence Instruction in the First Three Years of the Curriculum. Academic Medicine. June 2006; 81(6), 557-564.
Najm WI, Lie D, Shapiro J, Llenderrozos HJ. Group medical visits as a teaching tool in a family medicine clerkship. Family Medicine. October 2009; 41(9); 626-32.
Shapiro, J, Lie, D, Gutierrez, D and Zhuang, G. That Never Would Have Occurred To Me: Medical Students Views of a Cultural Competence Curriculum. BMC Medical Education. June 2006, 6:31.
Teal CR, Shada RE, Gill AC, Thompson BM, Fruge E, Villareal GB, Haidet P. When best intentionas aren't enough: helping medical students develop strategies for managing bias aboiut patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2), S115-8.
Thompson BM, Haidet P, Casanova R, Vivo RP, Gomez AG, Brown AF, Richter RA, Crandall SJ. Medical Students' Perceptions of their teachers and their own cultural competency: implications for education. Journal of General Internal Medicine. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2), S91-4.
Zambrana RE, Carter-Pokras O. Role of Acculturation Research in Advancing Science and Practice in Reducing Health Care Disparities Among Latinos. American Journal of Public Health. January 2010; 100(1); 18-23.
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Achieving Cultural Competency: A Case-Based Approach to Training Health Professionals
This book provides the necessary tools to meet the ever-growing need for culturally competent practitioners and trainees. Twenty-five self-study cases cover a variety of medical topics, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurology, oncology, hematology, immunology, and pediatric disorders. Actual scenarios that occurred in clinical settings help the user gain direct insight into the realities of practice today. Cultural factors covered within the cases include cultural diversity plus gender, language, folk beliefs, socioeconomic status, religion, and sexual orientation.
The book awards up to 25 AMA category 1 credits and each case is 1 credit. The physician can obtain 6 credits per year for 3 years, as required in NJ, CA, WA and NM. The credits are awarded online by the University of Penn School of Medicine CME office. The link for that web site is below and also listed in the book. They physician needs to buy the book to get the access code to logon to the site. The book includes the questions that are posted online so it is a very simple process.
The UPenn School of Medicine Cultural Competency Program also developed 2 web-based videos of 2 cases that appear in the book. These can be viewed here, and are listed below.
The physician can also receive CME credits from watching these videos and answering the questions. These videos are designed for medical students and residents, but faculty can find these as very helpful. Faculty can show the vides and give commentary or hear the commentary that our faculty have said between each scene, since these were their patients.
This book can be purchased for $69.95 from Wiley-Blackwell with no additional charges for CME credits. All directions to complete the CME process are in the book and it is available now.
Please see the casebook for cases authored by NCME Consortium members:
Hark L, DeLisser H, Morrison G (eds). Achieving cultural competency: a case-based approach to training health professionals. Wiley-Blackwell. April, 2009. (ISBN-10:1405180722; ISBN-13:9781405180726).
NCME Consortium Case Authors: Drs. Carter-Pokras,Crandall, DeLisser, Hark, Lee-Rey, Lie, and Nuñez.
Bates' Guide to Physical Examination & History Taking, by Dr. Lynn S. Bickley.
The 10th edition of the pre-eminent textbook on physical examination and history taking contains foundational content to guide students' approaches to history taking, interviewing, and other core assessment concepts, as well as fully illustrated, step-by-step techniques that outline correct performance of physical examination. The second chapter, "Interviewing Health and History" has incorporated additional content to include: achieving cultural competence, exploring the patient's perspective, and guidelines for working with interpreters.
Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Unequal Treatment: : Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care The report found that found that a consistent body of research demonstrates significant variation in the rates of medical procedures by race, even when insurance status, income, age, and severity of conditions are comparable. This research indicates that U.S. racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to receive even routine medical procedures and experience a lower quality of health services.
American Medical Association (AMA)
Eliminating Health Disparities Describes AMA commissions and activities to eliminate health disparities as well as describe research findings and recommendations
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