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NHLBI: Teaching Multi-cultural Practice

About Us

Wake Forest University School of Medicine

Advancing Cultural Competency Education and Training

Sonia Crandall, PhD, MSSonia Crandall, PhD, MS

Professor of Family and Community Medicine

Affiliate,The Maya Angelou Center for Health Equity

Director, Women’s Health Center of Excellence Leadership and Mentoring Program



Medical Center Boulevard

Winston Salem, NC 27157

(336) 716-2252

Principal Investigator
Wake Forest University School of Medicine




  • Developed and serves as facilitator of the Family Medicine Tutorial, “Making the Case for Cultural Proficiency.” Global objectives are: Recognize the presence of the patient’s perspective in all encounters, define one’s goal in providing care and practice phrases to explore the patient’s perspective while working to unite the two. Resources used include: IOM report “Unequal Treatment: What Healthcare Providers Need to Know about Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care” and two of the videos from the “World’s Apart” series.
  • Served on the Macy Foundation Study Expert Panel on Diagnosis and Primary Health Care. The report, entitled “Curriculum and Clinical Training in Oral Health for Physicians and Dentists: Report of a Panel of the Macy Study” published as a supplement to the February 2008 issue of the Journal of Dental Education (JDE). The interdisciplinary expert panel was modeled on the AAMC MSOP and met to develop learning objectives to be incorporated into curriculum, identify educational strategies to achieve these objectives and provide consideration to the pace of new findings for adoption.
  • Developed a national preconference workshop titled: “Making the Case for Cultural Proficiency: A Workshop for Medical Educators” for the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine. The workshop, developed in collaboration with Drs. Desiree Lie, David Acosta, Elizabeth Lee-Rey, and Kim Griswold, included lecture-discussions, small group exercises, role plays, simulations, videotape reviews and individual reflection activities. The exercises targeted skill, knowledge and attitude elements and participants came away with resources to apply at home.

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There have been several publications to date:

  • Carter-Pokras O, Acosta DA, Lie D, Bereknyei S, DeLisser H, Haidet P, Gill A, Hildebrandt C, Crandall S, Kondwani K, Glick S. for the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals. Curricular Products from the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals. MDNG: Focus on Multicultural Healthcare (in press 2009). Available at: MDNG
  • Spangler J, Foley KL, Crandall S, Lane C, Walker K, MacRae M, Vaden K, Marion G. Implementing smokeless tobacco instruction into medical student education: addressing the gap. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2009, 21(1): 33-37.
  • Lee-Rey E, Crandall S, Arcury T. The case of Bobby Napier: 68-year-old rural Appalachian man with type 2 diabetes. In Hark LH, DeLisser HM (Eds). Achieving Cultural Competency: A Case-Based Approach to Training Health Professionals. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Malden MA. 2009.
  • Crandall SJ, Davis SW, Broeseker AE, Hildebrandt C. A Longitudinal Comparison of Pharmacy and Medical Students’ Attitudes Toward the Medically Underserved. Am J of Pharm Educ 2009; 76(6): Article 148.
  • Marion G , Crandall S, Hildebrandt C, Walker K, Gamberini B, Spangler J, Tobacco Ties. MedEdPORTAL; 2009. Available from: MedEdPORTAL, ID 3138
  • Archambault ME, Van Rhee JA, Marion GS, Crandall SJ. Utilizing implicit association testing to promote awareness of biases regarding age and disability. Journal of Physician Assistant Education 2008, 19(4): 20-26.
  • Formicola A, Valachovic RW, Chmar JE, Mouradian W, Bertolami CN, Tedesco L, Aschenbrener C, Crandall SJ, Epstein RM, da Fonseca M, Haden NK, Ruffin A, Sciubba, JJ, Silverton S, Strauss R. Curriculum and clinical training in oral health for physicians and dentists: report of panel 2 of the Macy Study. J Dent Educ 2008; 72(2 Suppl): 73-85.
  • Marion GS, Hildebrandt CA, Davis SW, Marín AJ, Crandall SJ. Working effectively with interpreters: a model curriculum for physician assistant students. Medical Teacher 2008; 30:612-17.

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  • NCME @ Health Literach Annual Research Conference
    • Two workshops on cultural competency and MedEdPORTAL
    • October 17-18, 2011, Chicago, IL
  • RWJ National Health Plan Collaborative Toolkit
    • This toolkit has resources, lessons, best practices and case studies to assist health plans reduce disparities.
  • AHRQ Health Literacy Toolkit
    • The toolkit can help your practice and communicate with patients.
  • Stopping Discrimination Before it Starts: The Impact of Civil Rights Laws on Healthcare Disparities
  • Curricular Products from the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals
  • Conferences:
    • AAMC annual meeting 2010
      • November 5-10, Washington, DC
    • APHA annual meeting 2010
      • November 6-10, Denver, CO